February 16



Data ( , , or ) is a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables; restated, pieces of data are individual pieces of information. Data is measured, collected and reported, and analyzed, whereupon it can be visualized using graphs or images. Data as an abstract concept can be viewed as the lowest level of abstraction, from which information and then knowledge are derived. Raw data, i.e., unprocessed data, refers to a collection of numbers, characters and is a relative term; data processing commonly occurs by stages, and the “processed data” from one stage may be considered the “raw data” of the next. Field data refers to raw data that is collected in an uncontrolled in situ environment. Experimental data refers to data that is generated within the context of a scientific investigation by observation and recording. The word “data” used to be considered as the plural of “datum”, but now is generally used in the singular, as a mass noun.


Etymology is the study of the origin and history of words. It can be used to trace the evolution and changes in language over time, as well as to discover the roots and meanings of words. In terms of data, etymology helps us understand why certain processes or technologies use specific words for their functions or operations.

The word ‘data’ is derived from Latin, where it had two distinct meanings, depending on its context. Firstly, it was used as a singular noun meaning “a thing given” or “a thing offered”. Secondly, as an adjective, it meant “given” or “offered”, and was used in phrases such as data fide (in good faith) or data opera (with labor).

In 16-17th century Latin texts, the noun form of data was often used in reference to money owed to people by organizations or government entities. This likely comes from earlier Greek texts where the same phrase was used in reference to coins that were given as payment for services performed by people. The English equivalent would be something like “payment due”.

Data first appeared in English in the 14th century with a meaning close to its original Latin roots – something that has been given or offered. It wasn’t until the 16th century that it began to acquire its modern meaning related to information processing – things that are collected and organized into sets which can then be analyzed and manipulated.

Modern usage of data has evolved further still since then. We now use it when referring not only to facts and figures but also anything from images to software code – anything which can be processed by computers. Data science is one of the most prominent examples of how far our understanding of this term has come; a field which involves collecting large amounts of structured and unstructured information from various sources for analysis with machine learning models and algorithms.


Data beliefs represent an individual’s or group’s attitude towards the potential of data to shape their lives. These beliefs are informed by a combination of traditional wisdom and modern research, which can lead to different sets of values and opinions.

In general, data believers have faith that data can be used to improve decision-making processes, provide insights into complex problems, and enable more efficient resource allocation. Data believers often focus on the potential positive applications of data rather than its potential drawbacks.

For many individuals, having a belief in the power of data is essential for success as our world continues to become increasingly digitalized. Having a strong understanding of how various sources of information can be used to unlock deeper insights is also essential for staying ahead in the ever-evolving landscape of technology.

The first major application for data was in computer science. The establishment of computing power enabled researchers and scientists to gain access to vast amounts of structured and unstructured data, unlocking the possibility for using it in new ways. This led to some early successes such as machine learning models being developed that showed promise in solving complex problems like image recognition or natural language processing tasks.

Another area where data belief has been instrumental is in economics. Economists have long understood that having reliable statistics about investment returns or consumer trends can provide invaluable insight into how markets operate or how best to make decisions regarding public policy. As technology has advanced, so too has economists’ ability to analyze large amounts of real-time economic activity—allowing them to make more accurate projections about future conditions with greater confidence.

Data beliefs are also playing an important role in social sciences such as sociology and political science. With the help of big data analytics tools, researchers have been able to study social dynamics at an unprecedented level—from understanding why people vote certain ways during elections to uncovering previously unknown correlations between health outcomes and cultural practices within communities. This type of data-driven research is providing new insights into issues that have traditionally been difficult for sociologists and other social scientists to measure accurately due to limitations with existing survey methods or sample sizes.

Finally, businesses across all industries are beginning to recognize the value that data brings—transforming their operations from traditional methods based on intuition and gut instinct towards more evidence-based decision-making processes driven by comprehensive analysis backed up by hard facts and numbers derived from comprehensive datasets collected over time from both internal sources (e.g., customer transactional history) as well as external sources (e.g., market research).


Data Practices are a set of processes undertaken by organizations to ensure that they are able to effectively capture, store, maintain and use data in the best possible way. These practices ensure that information is accurate, secure and up-to-date so that it can be used for business decision making.

Data Practices include data capture, storage, maintenance and usage. Data Capture involves the collection of data from different sources such as customer surveys or online forms. Storage refers to how the data is stored for future use and maintenance is the process of updating and maintaining the data so that it remains relevant over time. Finally, usage entails using the data in order to make decisions based on its accuracy and relevance.

An important component of Data Practices is governance which defines how an organization manages its data assets. It includes establishing policies on quality control, access control, privacy and security as well as auditing procedures. Governance also covers the roles and responsibilities of personnel involved in managing the company’s data assets such as system administrators or IT personnel who maintain systems containing sensitive information.

Data must also be monitored regularly to ensure its accuracy by running tests to detect errors or inconsistencies in the dataset. This process is known as Data Quality Management (DQM) which involves monitoring for completeness, consistency, accuracy and timeliness of data records. DQM also ensures that any changes made by users are done correctly according to established procedures which minimizes risk associated with erroneous or incomplete input into databases or other systems storing sensitive information.

Finally, another critical component of Data Practices is analytics which enables organizations to gain insights from their existing datasets through various techniques such as predictive analytics or machine learning algorithms. This helps companies better understand trends within their own customer base as well as market dynamics all while ensuring compliance with laws governing customer privacy and organizational security protocols.


Data Books are digital books that are created using data and statistical methods. These books allow readers to access large amounts of data and gain a deep understanding of the information contained within. Data books can be used in many different disciplines, such as economics, finance, business intelligence, engineering, physics and mathematics. They also offer a unique way to present ideas and theories in an easy to understand way.

Data books are typically organized into sections based on the type of data being used. For example, economic data books may include topics such as GDP growth rates, employment trends, inflation levels, consumer spending patterns and industry sector performance. Business intelligence data books may focus on customer demographics or sales reports. Mathematical data books could discuss mathematical concepts or functions in detail or might cover topics related to computer programming and analysis.

The primary benefit of a data book is that it allows readers to easily compare different sources of information in one place. This makes them an ideal tool for research projects where multiple sources of data must be compiled and analyzed in order to draw conclusions about a particular topic or phenomenon. Additionally, because the contents of the book are already organized into sections based on the type of data being used, readers can quickly locate the relevant content without having to spend time reading through irrelevant material.

Data books can also be used to communicate complex ideas in more accessible ways than traditional formats like text-heavy documents or lengthy PowerPoint presentations would allow. By presenting denser amounts of information graphically or visually using charts and diagrams they can often make complex ideas easier for non-experts to understand quickly.


Demographics is the study of a population’s characteristics, such as age, gender, ethnicity, economic status, health status and level of education. It also includes information on where people live and how they interact with their environment. Demographics can help to identify trends in a population that can inform public policy decisions and marketing strategies.

The term “demography” was coined by Belgian statistician Adolphe Quetelet in the early 19th century. He used it to describe information about populations—the size of populations, their distribution by age and sex, marriage and fertility rates, mortality rates, migration patterns—and how these characteristics change over time. Today, demographers use data from census surveys, vital records (births and deaths), household surveys and other sources to study population trends.

Demographic data can be used to make predictions about future events or trends. For example, demographers use demographic data to project future populations for local planning purposes or to forecast labor force requirements for certain industries. In addition, demographic data can be used to identify areas with high concentrations of certain types of people—such as the poor or the elderly —that may require focused services or resources.

Businesses / Structures / Denominations

Data in business, structures and denominations refers to the collection, storage, and utilization of data for business operations. It encompasses the use of data-driven technology such as analytics, software programs, databases, spreadsheets and visualizations tools. Data is used to analyze and inform decision making processes by providing insights into customer behavior, market trends, risk management, fraud prevention and more.

Businesses use data to help make decisions that improve their efficiency, customer service, cost effectiveness and overall profitability. For example, companies are increasingly utilizing advanced data analytics to optimize their marketing campaigns or reduce customer churn. Data can also be used in product development efforts to better understand the needs of customers in a given market segment.

Structures utilize data for planning and design purposes such as predicting future market conditions or analyzing structural components for safety purposes. Data can also be used with simulations to estimate future performance of a structure once built or existing structure after repairs or modifications have been made.

Denominations refer to the classification or categorization of data into meaningful units or groups according to agreed upon standards or criteria. This is done so that large amounts of complex or heterogeneous information can be more easily analyzed and understood. Common examples include financial reporting standards (GAAP), geographic coding standards (GIS) or operational standards (ISO).

Cultural Inflience

Data and cultural influence are closely intertwined. In today’s digital world, data can be found everywhere from government databases to the family photo album. Despite its pervasive presence, many people struggle to understand just how data is collected and utilized.

Data can be used to inform policy decisions and drive innovation, but it can also be a powerful tool for understanding and shaping culture. Cultural norms and practices often evolve slowly over time, thanks in part to data-driven insights that provide an ongoing pulse of the prevailing values and beliefs of a given culture. This helps to ensure that cultural experiences remain relevant to modern life while also keeping up with the rapid pace of technological change.

Data-driven insights can help organizations better understand their customers, employees, partners, or even competitors within a specific cultural context. By leveraging this information, businesses have access to valuable insights about their target audiences that can inform everything from marketing strategies to product design decisions. Moreover, analysis of customer behavior in relation to various cultural elements can provide valuable insights into local markets that could otherwise go overlooked or misunderstood by a global business model.

On the flip side, cultural values may also affect how consumers interact with technology and data. For example, research has suggested that consumers in cultures where privacy is held in higher regard tend to have more strict requirements when it comes to their personal data compared with those in societies where privacy is not as highly valued or protected. Meanwhile, in cultures where social media is heavily embraced as an important form of communication, users may readily share more personal information than they would otherwise feel comfortable doing elsewhere online due to heightened expectations of authenticity on these platforms.

Criticism / Persecution / Apologetics

Data has become an increasingly important aspect of our lives in the 21st century. It is used to inform decision-making processes and can be used for a wide array of applications, from national security to marketing campaigns. However, data also has its critics and those who believe it should be subject to persecution or apologetics. This article will provide an overview of the various criticisms, persecutions, and apologetics that have been applied to data in recent years.

One common criticism of data is that it can lead to an overreliance on technology and automation. Proponents of this view argue that using data can lead to a decrease in creativity and human judgment as decisions are made based solely on the facts presented by the data. Additionally, there is concern that data could be used in unethical or even illegal ways if not properly managed or monitored. For example, companies may use personal data without consent or access information they are not entitled to.

Another criticism comes from those who believe that data should be subject to greater regulation and scrutiny. In particular, there have been calls for greater protection against malicious actors who could use personal information for nefarious purposes such as identity theft or fraud. Furthermore, organizations must ensure they are adhering to laws pertaining to consumer privacy when collecting and utilizing people’s information.

There is also a growing push for governments around the world to take action against hate speech and other forms of discrimination enabled by big tech companies mining user-generated content for profit. Critics argue that this type of data collection can lead to increased levels of hate and bigotry online as algorithms surface content based on what users have previously viewed or interacted with thus creating filter bubbles or “echo chambers” where only one opinion is heard over all others.

Despite these criticisms, many still see great potential for the responsible use of data in terms of improving efficiency, accuracy, and overall decision making both within institutions as well as when interacting with customers at large scale events such as concerts or festivals. For instance, facial recognition technologies can help improve security while providing convenience by cutting down wait times at venues with large crowds through automated ticketing systems. Additionally, predictive analytics can help businesses target marketing campaigns more effectively while providing customers with personalized product recommendations they may find useful.


Data types are an integral part of computer science and a fundamental concept in programming. Types provide the means to store, manipulate and communicate data between devices and applications, allowing for the exchange of information in different forms. Data types define how the values are interpreted when used in a program or system. They also provide structure and constraints that can be used to simplify complex tasks.

A type can be defined as a named set of properties or behaviors that a certain value must possess in order to use it correctly. A type is an abstract representation of the data stored in memory and is determined by its range and precision. A specific data type determines what kind of operations can be performed on the data, as well as what kind of values it can contain.

In computing, there are two main categories of data types: primitive types, which are basic or atomic units that cannot be further divided; and composite types, which represent complex collections of data with more intricate structures like lists and arrays. Primitive data types include integers, floats, strings, booleans, characters, symbols and enumerations (enums). Composite data types include objects (classes), associative arrays (maps or dictionaries), linked lists, queues/deques (double-ended queues) and trees.

Each language has its own set of supported primitive types with their own individual characteristics such as range limitations and precision levels. Additionally some languages provide additional functions to supplement the standard primitive type set like user-defined structures (structs) or enums (enumerations). Both primitive and composite data types have their advantages when dealing with specific scenarios; however it is important to note that performance may vary based on usage patterns.

The structure of each type dictates how it should be treated within a program or system; this also often determines how efficient it will be when accessing certain features or running certain operations on it. For instance an array is much faster than a linked list since random access operations require less time compared to sequential access operations due to its linear nature. Similarly using an enum is often better than using multiple if/then statements since assigning one value from a predefined list allows for simpler code logic without sacrificing efficiency gains provided by having fewer comparison operations taking place at runtime.


Data languages are programming languages that are specifically designed to work with data. These languages provide a variety of functions and capabilities for data processing and analysis, as well as for creating applications that deal with large amounts of data.

One of the earliest examples of a data language is FORTRAN, which was created in the 1950s by IBM. This language was designed to allow scientists and engineers to express mathematical equations and algorithms in terms they could understand. Over time, it evolved into one of the most widely used languages for scientific computing, particularly in areas such as engineering and physics.

Another early example is SQL (Structured Query Language), which was developed in 1974 by IBM researcher Donald Chamberlin. SQL was designed to enable easy retrieval and manipulation of data stored in a relational database management system (RDBMS). Today, SQL is the most popular language for managing RDBMSs; most modern RDBMSs include an implementation of SQL as their primary query language.

In addition to FORTRAN and SQL, there are many other data languages that have been developed over the years. Examples include SAS (Statistical Analysis System), C++ (Object-Oriented Programming Language), Java (Object-Oriented Programming Language) , Python (Scripting Language), R (Statistical Computing Language) and MATLAB (Matrix Laboratory). These languages can be used for a wide range of tasks, from basic statistical analysis to complex machine learning algorithms.


Data regions are areas or zones that store large amounts of data, either in the physical form of archives or libraries, or in digital form as cloud storage. Data regions can be physical or virtual and may exist as part of a larger infrastructure.

Data regions can be public or private, allowing for different levels of access to the stored data. Physical data regions may require special security protocols to protect sensitive information from unauthorised access. Virtual data regions provide the same level of access protection but with less physical infrastructure requirements.

Data stored in physical archives is usually presented in two-dimensional formats. The location, organization and storage capacity must be carefully considered when creating a physical archive system. Digital storage such as cloud storage is often three-dimensional in nature with layers of content, making it more difficult to manage than traditional two-dimensional formats.

Data region characteristics vary depending on the size and purpose of the region itself. Smaller data regions may contain only a small amount of information while larger ones can contain vast amounts of documents and files. When considering a data region’s purpose, it should align with an organization’s objectives and goals for storing the data. For example, if the goal is to collect customer service records then a secure location would be needed to keep them safe from hackers and other malicious actors who might seek to gain access to sensitive information.

Data regions also need to be supported by robust technology systems that are capable of managing large volumes of data efficiently and securely. This includes software solutions that allow for inventory management, version control and archiving capabilities which will ensure that data remains safe from corruption or loss due to accidental deletion or hardware failure. Additionally, security protocols should also be implemented within any digital storage facility to help reduce vulnerability against cyber threats like malware attacks or unauthorized access attempts.

A well designed and managed system will help ensure that the associated cost benefits outweigh any potential risks associated with storing large volumes of data in one region compared to other options such as storing it across multiple geographical locations worldwide. Generally speaking, cost benefits come from having economies of scale which involve leveraging resources such as personnel and technology over multiple sites rather than investing heavily into one particular location or region alone.


Data Foundry is a global provider of private and public cloud services, managed services, and enterprise software solutions. The company was founded in 2013 by entrepreneur and data center industry veteran Mike Manos. With its headquarters in Austin, Texas, Data Foundry operates multiple North American data centers with a network of facilities located across the United States, Europe, and Asia.

Data Foundry’s mission is to provide its customers with secure access to their digital assets; reduce the complexity of managing digital infrastructure; and deliver flexible IT solutions that meet customer needs. The company offers a range of products and services designed to optimize applications and workloads running on both on-premise or cloud environments. It also provides managed services such as system monitoring, analytics, managed backups, database administration services, web hosting, disaster recovery planning and more.

The company also specializes in providing virtual private cloud (VPC) hosting for its customers that allows for added flexibility when it comes to scaling up or down depending on the customer’s changing needs. Furthermore, Data Foundry offers enterprise software solutions such as data integration tools and analytics engines that help companies make better decisions based on their collected data.

In addition to its core products and services offering, Data Foundry places an emphasis on delivering world-class customer service through its 24/7/365 technical support team that includes experienced engineers who are trained in a variety of technologies including Windows Server 2003/2008/2012 & 2016/2019 as well as various storage technologies including SAN/NAS storage systems to name a few.

History / Origin

Data has been an integral part of human history since the dawn of civilization. In ancient times, keeping records of vital information such as food supplies and population numbers was essential for efficient management of resources. This early form of data storage used clay tablets with cuneiform characters to represent numerical values, forming the basis for modern record-keeping systems.

Since then, various kinds of data have been collected and stored in more sophisticated ways. During the Middle Ages, government officials kept track of tax records by hand-writing them into large books using quills and ink. By the Renaissance period, merchants had started using double entry bookkeeping to keep track of their financial transactions.

The Industrial Revolution saw advances in technology that enabled people to collect vast quantities of data quickly and efficiently through a variety of new methods. For example, the invention of punch cards allowed machines to store large amounts of text-based information in a compact format. This type of data storage became increasingly popular during World War II when governments needed a way to organize massive amounts of military intelligence quickly and accurately.

The 20th century saw further developments in data technology with the advent of computers which enabled even more efficient forms of data storage and retrieval than ever before. By this time, businesses were able to use computers to store customer records and other important documents electronically rather than on paper – something that had previously been impossible due to the sheer amount of space such documents would take up. Information could now also be exchanged quickly between different locations around the world via electronic networks such as telexes and telephones – thus ushering in a new era for international communication.


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