April 18


The Importance of Personalization in Effective Marketing

By Hanson Cheng

April 18, 2023

  • minute read

Last Updated on April 18, 2023 by Hanson Cheng

As the world becomes increasingly connected and technology evolves, personalization has emerged as a potent tool to serve individuals, groups, and businesses better. This article delves into the concept of personalization, exploring its definition, importance, and key elements. It also provides examples of how personalization impacts our everyday lives.

The article further breaks down different types of personalization, such as individual-level, group-level, behavior-based, and story-based personalization. It then highlights various techniques used to achieve personalization, including collaborative filtering, content-based filtering, demographic-based filtering, and hybrid approaches.

In addition, the article covers crucial aspects of implementing personalization, such as data collection methods, analysis techniques, and ethical concerns surrounding privacy. It also emphasizes the role of personalization in business and education, exploring its benefits and applications in marketing, customer experience, adaptive learning environments, and more.

Lastly, the article discusses measuring the success of personalization efforts through key performance indicators, return on investment, and customer satisfaction and retention metrics. After reading this comprehensive guide, you’ll better understand personalization and its impact on various aspects of our lives.

Understanding Personalization

Definition and Importance

Personalization refers to the process of tailoring products, services, or experiences to meet the unique needs, preferences, or characteristics of individual customers or users. It is about identifying and understanding individuals’ preferences, behaviors, and demographics to enable a more personalized, relevant, and enjoyable experience for them.

The importance of personalization lies in its ability to create a strong connection between a brand and its customers, leading to increased customer satisfaction, loyalty, and positive word of mouth. In the era of digitalization and increased competition, personalization has become a key aspect of marketing and customer experience strategies, enabling businesses to distinguish themselves from competitors, drive customer engagement and potentially increase revenue.

Personalization fosters an emotional connection with customers by making them feel valued and understood. This, in turn, can lead to improved customer retention and a stronger likelihood of repeat purchases. Furthermore, personalization can also help businesses to identify and target the most valuable and responsive customers or user segments, leading to more effective and efficient resource allocation.

Key Elements of Personalization

There are several key elements that contribute to successful personalization efforts. These include:

  1. Customer or User Data: The foundation of personalization is data, which helps businesses know and understand their customers or users individually. This can include demographic information, purchase history, browsing behavior, and preferences or interests. Collecting, aggregating, and analyzing this data helps businesses create user profiles or segments that can be used to deliver tailored experiences.

  2. Advanced Analytics and Algorithms: Once businesses have collected customer data, it is necessary to analyze it and extract meaningful insights through advanced analytics and algorithms. Machine learning techniques and data science approaches, such as clustering or predictive modeling, can be employed to identify trends, associations or patterns in customer preferences and behaviors.

  3. Content and Messaging Strategy: Based on the insights gathered from data analysis, businesses can develop personalized content and messaging that resonates with individual customers or user segments. This includes creating targeted marketing campaigns, customized product recommendations, and bespoke user interfaces or experiences.

  4. Technology Infrastructure: To implement personalization effectively, it is important for businesses to have the right technological infrastructure in place, which includes systems for collecting, storing and processing customer data, such as customer relationship management (CRM) systems and data management platforms (DMPs), as well as tools for analyzing the data and automating the personalization process.

  5. A Culture of Experimentation and Continuous Improvement: Personalization should be approached as an ongoing effort, with businesses learning from customer feedback, analyzing the effectiveness of personalization tactics, and continuously refining their strategies. A culture of experimentation, testing, and learning can help to foster innovation and ensure that personalization tactics remain fresh and relevant.

Examples of Personalization in Everyday Life

Thanks to innovative technologies and data-driven strategies, personalization can be experienced in various aspects of daily life. Some examples of personalization include:

  1. E-commerce: Online shopping platforms like Amazon and Netflix use data about customers’ purchase history, browsing behavior, and product ratings to suggest relevant products, movies or shows. This can make the shopping experience more engaging and reduce the amount of time spent searching for desired items.

  2. Online Advertising: Personalized advertising is a way for businesses to target customers based on their interests, demographic information, and browsing habits. This can result in users seeing more relevant ads and businesses seeing better return on investment (ROI) from their advertising budget.

  3. Social Media Platforms: On social media platforms like Facebook and Instagram, users are exposed to a personalized feed of content based on the preferences, behavior, and connections they share with other users. This tailored content can help keep users engaged and encourage them to return to the platform.

  4. Mobile Apps: Many mobile apps offer personalized experiences, such as fitness tracking apps that create custom workout plans based on user preferences, goals, and fitness levels or music streaming services that create personalized playlists based on musical taste and listening habits.

  5. Email Marketing: Businesses use data-driven email marketing strategies to send personalized email campaigns based on recipient behavior, preferences, and demographics. These campaigns can include tailored promotional offers or targeted content, resulting in higher click-through rates and engagement levels.

In conclusion, personalization is a powerful aspect of modern business strategies for delivering tailored experiences and fostering customer loyalty. By leveraging customer data, advanced analytics, and technologies, organizations can create personalized experiences that resonate with individuals and increase customer satisfaction and business performance.

Different Types of Personalization

Personalization refers to the process of customizing content, products, or services to cater to individual users’ needs, preferences, and interests. It is widely used in marketing, e-commerce, and the web in general. There are various types of personalization methods, each with its own approach and scope. This article will discuss four main types of personalization: individual-level, group-level, behavior-based, and story-based personalization.

Individual-level Personalization

As the name implies, individual-level personalization focuses on making a tailored experience for each user. This type of personalization uses data about an individual user’s preferences, behavior, and demographic information to design a unique and relevant experience.

For example, an e-commerce website may show personalized product recommendations based on the user’s browsing and purchase history. Another example is a streaming platform that provides tailored movie or TV show recommendations based on the user’s previous watch history and ratings.

Individual-level personalization can be an effective way to increase user engagement and loyalty, as users are more likely to feel valued and understood when they are provided with content and offers that directly relate to their needs and interests.

However, it can be more complex and resource-intensive to implement, as it requires a deeper understanding of each user’s actions and preferences and sophisticated algorithms and technologies to deliver a personalized experience.

Group-level Personalization

Group-level personalization focuses on the customization of content or services for a particular group of users rather than individuals. These groups may be based on demographic factors such as age, gender, or location or on shared interests or behavior patterns.

A common example of group-level personalization is segmenting email marketing campaigns based on user demographics, interests, or previous interactions with the brand. Targeting specific segments with tailored content or offers can increase the relevance of their marketing efforts and drive higher engagement.

Group-level personalization often requires less effort and resources than individual-level personalization, as it does not require the same depth of understanding about each user. However, it may not achieve the same level of personal relevance or user satisfaction, as it is more general in nature and may not cater to individual preferences or expectations.

Behavior-based Personalization

Behavior-based personalization focuses on delivering customized content or experiences based on a user’s actions or behavior patterns. This type of personalization can be applied at both individual and group levels.

For example, an online retailer might track a user’s clicks and page views in order to identify their interests and preferences. These insights can then be used to provide the user with relevant product recommendations or adjust website content accordingly. Similarly, a marketer might segment their audience based on engagement with previous campaigns or interactions with other marketing channels and tailor their messaging to better resonate with each segment.

Behavior-based personalization can drive significant improvements in user engagement and conversion rates, as it helps ensure that users see content that aligns well with their actions and preferences. However, it can be challenging to identify the most important behavioral signals to focus on and may require significant data analysis and integration efforts.

Story-based Personalization

Story-based personalization is a more recent and emerging approach to personalization that focuses on developing meaningful and authentic narratives that resonate with users on a more personal level. Rather than simply customizing content or offers based on user data, story-based personalization aims to create an emotional connection with users through compelling storytelling and relatable experiences.

This approach can be applied to various types of content, including video, website copy, or social media content, and can be combined with other personalization strategies, such as individual or group-level customization. For example, a brand might develop videos highlighting user stories or experiences and incorporate various personalization elements, such as user names or specific visual cues related to their target audience.

Story-based personalization can help brands create meaningful connections with their audience, fostering greater trust and loyalty over time. It may be particularly useful in industries where commoditization has made it difficult to differentiate products or services based on features or pricing alone. However, this approach can also be more complex and resource-intensive to implement, as it requires a strong understanding of user motivations, emotional drivers, creative storytelling, and visual design capabilities.

Techniques for Personalization

Personalization is the process of tailoring products, services, or content to cater to individual users’ specific needs and preferences. Businesses can achieve this by implementing various personalization techniques in their systems or web applications. This article discusses the widely-used personalization techniques, including collaborative filtering, content-based filtering, demographic-based filtering, and hybrid approaches.

Collaborative Filtering

Collaborative filtering (CF) is a popular technique for personalization, widely used in recommendation systems, such as online shopping, movie, and music recommendations. CF is based on the idea that people with similar preferences or behaviors in the past are likely to have similar preferences in the future.

There are two main types of collaborative filtering: User-based and Item-based.

  1. User-based Collaborative Filtering: This method analyzes a user’s past behavior and preferences, comparing them with the preferences of other users in the system. It recommends items or content that people with similar preferences have liked or consumed in the past. It essentially uses the wisdom of the crowd to make personalized suggestions.

  2. Item-based Collaborative Filtering: Item-based CF focuses on the similarity between items rather than users. It recommends items to a user based on their similarity to the items the user has liked or consumed in the past. Item-based CF computes the similarity between items based on the users who have interacted with them.

Collaborative filtering, although effective, has some limitations. Data sparsity and the cold-start problem (inability to make recommendations for new users or items) are the major challenges it faces.

Content-Based Filtering

Content-based filtering (CBF) is another popular personalization technique that recommends items or content to users based on their features and the user’s past preferences or interactions. For instance, if a user watched a sci-fi movie in the past, CBF would recommend other sci-fi movies with similar plots, actors, or directors.

This method uses algorithms like the cosine similarity or the Jaccard index to compute the similarity between items based on their features. It then ranks items by their similarity scores and recommends the top items to the user.

The advantage of content-based filtering over collaborative filtering is that it can handle the cold-start problem better since it doesn’t require user interaction data to make recommendations. However, due to the dependency on item features, the quality of recommendations may not always be accurate, and it sometimes leads to over-specialization, resulting in a lack of diversity in recommendations.

Demographic-Based Filtering

Demographic-based filtering is a personalization technique that utilizes the user’s demographic information, such as age, gender, geographical location, and occupation, to make recommendations. This method assumes that users with similar demographic backgrounds may have similar preferences or interests.

This technique is generally used in combination with other filtering methods to improve the quality of recommendations. Demographic-based filtering can also help to overcome the cold-start problem in situations where collaborative or content-based filtering may struggle due to insufficient user interaction data.

However, demographic-based filtering has its limitations. Users sharing the same demographic information might still have different preferences, and relying solely on demographic information may lead to inadequate or biased recommendations.

Hybrid Approaches

Hybrid approaches combine two or more personalization techniques to leverage the strengths and overcome the weaknesses of individual methods. For instance, a hybrid system may use collaborative filtering to provide diverse recommendations and content-based filtering to refine these recommendations further based on the user’s preferences.

There are different ways to integrate multiple personalization techniques. These include:

  1. Parallel approach: This method simultaneously applies multiple recommendation techniques and combines their results to create a final recommendation list.

  2. Sequential approach: In this method, one technique refines the results generated by another technique. For example, collaborative filtering can generate an initial list of recommendations, and content-based filtering could then rank these items based on the user’s past preferences.

  3. Weighted approach: This approach assigns specific weights to the results produced by various recommendation techniques, considering their strengths and weaknesses to create a recommendation list.

  4. Feature combination: This method integrates the information or features used by different recommendation techniques into a single model.

Hybrid approaches aim to provide accurate and diverse recommendations by overcoming the limitations of individual personalization techniques. However, integrating multiple techniques may lead to increased complexity and maintenance challenges.

Implementation of Personalization

Implementing a successful personalization strategy can significantly enhance the customer experience and drive increased engagement, customer satisfaction, and revenue. A key aspect of personalization is the collection and analysis of data to create targeted and relevant experiences for users. This article will discuss data collection methods and data analysis techniques and illuminate the potential privacy concerns and ethical issues that must be considered.

Data Collection Methods

Data collection methods can be broadly categorized into quantitative data (structured and numerical) and qualitative data (unstructured and subjective).

Quantitative Data

Quantitative data is essential for understanding user behavior, preferences, and demographics to create tailored experiences. Common sources of quantitative data in personalization include:

  1. Web or mobile app analytics: These software tools, such as Google Analytics or Mixpanel, track user interactions with your website or application. Important metrics include page views, bounce rates, revenue, conversion rates, and other key performance indicators (KPIs).

  2. CRM or customer relationship management systems: These store customer data such as contact information, purchase history, preferences, and customer service interactions. CRM tools like Salesforce or HubSpot can be invaluable sources of data for personalizing marketing campaigns.

  3. Social media management tools: Platforms like Hootsuite, Sprout Social, or Buffer compile quantitative data on user engagement with your brand across various social media channels. This data can inform marketing strategies and help identify high-value segments of your audience.

Qualitative Data

Qualitative data enables a deeper understanding of your audience’s needs, perceptions, emotions, and motivations. While these insights are harder to quantify, they are a crucial supplement to quantitative data. Key sources of qualitative data include:

  1. Surveys and feedback forms: Conducting polls, surveys, or questionnaires that capture user opinions, suggestions, and preferences can help inform personalization efforts.

  2. Customer interviews and focus groups: Gaining first-hand insights from customers can shed light on their motivations, pain points, and desires. These findings can guide the development of more personalized customer experiences.

  3. Online reviews and testimonials: These can reveal how customers feel about your product, service, or brand, as well as provide insight into their experiences.

Data Analysis Techniques

Once you’ve collected sufficient data, you then need to analyze it to inform your personalization strategy. Commonly used data analysis techniques include:

Descriptive Analysis

Descriptive analysis helps summarize and interpret the collected data, clearly showing user demographics and behavior. Some examples of descriptive statistics include calculating mean, median, mode, and standard deviation.

Diagnostic Analysis

The diagnostic analysis is used to determine the cause of certain behaviors or outcomes. These methods examine relationships and correlations between variables, enabling you to identify underlying patterns that contribute to specific results. For example, a diagnostic analysis might reveal that users in a certain age group are more likely to make a purchase.

Predictive Analysis

Predictive analysis helps anticipate future outcomes based on historical data. By recognizing patterns and trends, you can make informed decisions about user experiences, such as recommending content or products that are likely to interest-specific customers. Machine learning algorithms are a powerful tool for enhancing predictive analysis capabilities.

Privacy Concerns and Ethical Issues

While personalization can create better user experiences, balancing these benefits with potential privacy concerns and ethical challenges is essential. When collecting and utilizing personal data, it is crucial to:

  1. Obtain user consent: Always ensure that users are aware of the data being collected and how it will be used. Be transparent about your practices and seek affirmative consent when necessary under applicable data protection regulations.

  2. Implement strong data security practices: Safeguard user data by employing security best practices, such as encryption and access controls, to minimize the risk of data breaches or unauthorized use.

  3. Respect user privacy preferences: Recognize that some users may wish to opt out of data collection or personalization. Provide easy-to-use mechanisms for users to control their data and privacy settings.

  4. Consider the implications of biased data and potential discrimination: Data-driven personalization can inadvertently perpetuate biases, stereotypes, or discrimination. Be aware of these risks and implement steps to mitigate potential harm.

By carefully considering data collection, analysis, and privacy concerns, you can successfully implement a personalization strategy that benefits both your customers and your organization.

Personalization in Business

In today’s highly competitive market, businesses are always seeking ways to differentiate themselves from their competitors, and one of the most effective methods is personalization. Personalization is the process of tailoring products, services, or communications to the specific preferences and needs of individual customers. This approach has become increasingly important in recent years due to consumers’ growing demand for customized experiences.

Benefits for Businesses

Personalization offers numerous benefits for businesses, including:

  1. Improved customer satisfaction: Personalized experiences are much more likely to meet or exceed customer expectations, resulting in greater satisfaction levels and increased loyalty.

  2. Higher conversion rates: Personalized marketing and advertising tend to result in more engaged customers, which can lead to higher conversion rates in terms of leads, sales, and customer acquisitions.

  3. Increased customer retention: Personalized experiences help build stronger connections between customers and brands, making individuals more likely to become repeat customers.

  4. Better customer insights: By analyzing customer data and preferences, businesses can gain valuable insights to help them improve their products or services and better understand market trends.

  5. Enhanced brand reputation: Delivering personalized experiences is associated with high-quality service and demonstrates that a business genuinely cares about its customers, which can positively impact a brand’s reputation.

Market Segmentation and Targeting Strategies

Personalization begins with market segmentation, where businesses identify and categorize different audience segments based on demographics, interests, behaviors, and purchasing patterns. Once the market segments are established, businesses can implement targeting strategies to focus their marketing and advertising efforts on the customers most likely to respond positively.

Targeting strategies include behavioral targeting, which focuses on customers’ browsing history, and demographic targeting, which focuses on characteristics such as age, gender, and location. Additionally, businesses may employ psychographic targeting to reach customers based on their attitudes, beliefs, and values.

Personalized Marketing and Advertising

Businesses can leverage personalization in various marketing and advertising channels, such as:

  • Email Marketing: Personalizing email campaigns by addressing recipients by name, using triggered emails based on user actions (e.g., abandoned cart emails), or segmenting messages based on customer preferences, helps to create a more engaging and relevant experience.

  • Social Media Marketing: Personalizing ads or content shared on social media platforms can help to increase engagement and click-through rates. This can include targeting ads to specific audience segments or using user-generated content to feature customers’ experiences with a brand’s products.

  • Content Marketing: Creating tailored content for specific audience segments can improve a brand’s reach and impact. This can involve customizing blog posts, videos, or other content based on customer preferences and interests.

Personalized Customer Experience

Personalization efforts can extend beyond marketing and advertising into the actual customer experience, including:

  • Product Recommendations: Businesses can use customer behavior and preferences data to offer personalized product recommendations, making it easier for customers to find products and services that meet their needs.

  • Dynamic Pricing: Pricing models can be customized according to individual customer preferences or shopping habits, leading to increased sales and customer satisfaction.

  • User Interface and User Experience Design: Personalization can be integrated into a company’s website or app’s user interface and user experience design, making it more intuitive and enjoyable for customers to navigate and engage with the brand.

Measuring Personalization Success

Monitoring and measuring the success of personalization efforts is critical to ensure continued improvement and return on investment. Some metrics that can be used to gauge personalization success include:

  • Key Performance Indicators (KPIs): These are specific, measurable goals that help businesses determine whether their personalization efforts are achieving the desired results. Examples of KPIs include increased conversion rates, improved customer satisfaction scores, and reduced bounce rates.

  • Return on Investment (ROI): Calculating the ROI of personalization efforts can help businesses justify their investments in technology and resources needed to implement personalized experiences. A positive ROI indicates that the benefits of personalization outweigh the costs involved.

  • Customer Satisfaction and Retention Metrics: By examining customer satisfaction and retention metrics, businesses can gain valuable insights into the overall effectiveness of their personalization strategies. This can include monitoring customer feedback, survey results, and the rate at which customers return for repeat purchases.

By embracing personalization and leveraging data to understand individual customer preferences, businesses have the opportunity to create more meaningful and impactful connections with their customers. This, in turn, drives customer satisfaction, loyalty, and overall business success.

Personalization in Education

The idea of personalization in education has gained significant interest in recent years as educators and policymakers explore the potential benefits of customized learning experiences. Personalization in education aims to ensure that each student receives individualized attention and support tailored to their unique learning needs, strengths, and interests. This can be achieved through a variety of approaches, which will be discussed further in this article.

Adaptive Learning Environments

Adaptive learning environments refer to instructional approaches that modify the learning experience based on a student’s individual needs. These environments can include content, assessments, and instructional strategies that are tailored to each student’s abilities, preferences, and performance.

Traditional classroom instruction relies heavily on a “one-size-fits-all” model, where all students receive the same content and follow the same learning path. Adaptive learning environments aim to overcome the limitations of this approach by providing personalized and flexible learning experiences.

In an adaptive learning environment, educators use assessment data to constantly track each student’s progress, allowing them to identify areas of difficulty or mastery quickly. This information is then used to recommend targeted learning activities, resources, and support services that specifically address each student’s identified needs.

Individualized Learning Plans

Individualized Learning Plans (ILPs) are an essential component of personalized education. These plans outline specific learning objectives, instructional strategies, and assessment methods for each student, based on their unique abilities, goals, and interests.

ILPs are typically developed through a collaborative process involving students, educators, and families. The planning begins with an initial assessment of a student’s strengths, weaknesses, and preferences. This information is then used to create a customized learning plan that outlines the student’s specific learning objectives, preferred learning modalities, and required accommodations or support services.

ILPs are ideally updated regularly to reflect a student’s ongoing progress and evolving needs. They serve as a roadmap for both educators and students, promoting a sense of ownership and self-direction in the learning process.

Role of Technology in Personalized Education

Technology plays a crucial role in enabling and supporting personalized education. From learning management systems to AI-driven tools, educational apps, and games, technology offers a range of solutions that facilitate the design, delivery, and assessment of personalized learning experiences.

Learning Management Systems (LMS)

A Learning Management System (LMS) is a software application that enables the planning, delivery, management, and evaluation of personalized educational content. LMS platforms provide educators with a wide range of tools to design, create, and deliver customized lessons, activities, and assessments. They also offer students a convenient and user-friendly interface for accessing educational resources, submitting assignments, tracking progress, and communicating with educators.

Some LMS platforms are specifically designed to support adaptive learning pathways, where content and assessments are personalized based on a student’s performance and preferences. These systems use data-driven algorithms to adjust the learning experience in real-time, ensuring that each student receives targeted support and instruction.

Artificial Intelligence (AI) Tools

Artificial intelligence (AI) tools are increasingly being used in personalized education to analyze student data, automate instructional processes, and provide targeted interventions. AI-driven platforms use machine learning algorithms to adapt the learning experience based on a student’s individual needs.

These tools can analyze vast amounts of data on a student’s performance, preferences, and learning history, identifying patterns and trends that human educators may not easily notice. AI-driven tools can also provide real-time feedback and guidance to students, personalizing the learning experience and promoting self-paced, self-directed learning.

Educational Apps and Games

Educational apps and games are another way technology supports personalized education. These digital resources provide engaging and interactive learning experiences that can be accessed anytime, anywhere.

Many educational apps and games are designed to adapt to a learner’s individual needs, adjusting content, difficulty level, and instructional strategies based on a student’s performance and preferences. These apps and games offer a fun and immersive way for students to explore their interests and develop their skills, while also providing valuable data for educators to track progress and inform personalized instruction.

Assessing Student Progress and Feedback

Student assessments and feedback are critical components of personalized education, as they provide valuable information on an individual’s learning progress, strengths, and areas for improvement.

In a personalized education system, assessments are designed to be flexible, formative, and diagnostic in nature. This means that they focus on identifying specific learning gaps and providing feedback on closing them rather than simply measuring knowledge and skills.

Feedback plays an essential role in personalized education, as it allows students to monitor their progress, understand their strengths and weaknesses, and take active steps to improve their learning outcomes. Feedback in personalized education is typically detailed, timely, and constructive, providing students with clear guidance on improving their performance and becoming more self-directed learners.

Personalization – FAQs

1. What is the meaning of personalization in marketing?

Personalization in marketing refers to the strategy of tailoring campaigns, messages, and offers to individual prospects or customers based on their unique preferences, buying habits, or engagement history with a brand, thereby enhancing the relevance and perceived value of marketing efforts (Phelon, 2015).

2. How does personalization improve customer experience and engagement?

By delivering unique, customized content, offers, or service that closely match individual needs, preferences, or interests, personalization helps create a more pleasant, relatable, and emotionally satisfying experience for each customer, which, in turn, fosters greater loyalty, trust, and engagement (Pike, 2019).

3. Which industries can benefit the most from leveraging personalized marketing strategies?

Though personalization can be applied across various industries, sectors like e-commerce, retail, travel, hospitality, finance, and healthcare, which have access to customer data and are characterized by frequent and direct customer interactions, are particularly well-suited to leverage the benefits of personalized marketing (Fitzpatrick, 2018).

4. What are the critical privacy concerns associated with personalized marketing efforts?

While collecting, processing, and analyzing personal data to develop granular insights might be central to personalized marketing, doing so often raises concerns regarding user privacy, data protection, and breaches, leading to potential legal risks, customer distrust, and reputational damage (Newman, 2018).

5. What role does technology play in facilitating personalization?

Advances in technology, including artificial intelligence, machine learning, and data analytics, underpin the ability to process vast volumes of diverse customer data in real time and extract actionable insights that inform strategic decision-making, enabling businesses to deliver a personalized, seamless marketing experience (Liljander, Polsa, & Forsberg, 2017).

6. What are some best practices in implementing personalization in marketing to enhance its effectiveness?

Key practices to maximize the impact of personalization include segmenting audiences thoughtfully, creating dynamic content that caters to different personas, adopting a data-driven approach for tailoring interactions, and respecting privacy regulations and customer preferences to build trust and long-term relationships (Kapoor, Dwivedi, Piercy, 2016).

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Hanson Cheng

About the author

Living in Portugal with my wife and puppies.
Scaling online businesses and sharing lessons learned on this website and in our email newsletter.

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